Sunday, June 30, 2013

News Production.. News Flow..

Abstract:

News production is not an easy task as it only looks simple and easy. News making is an art which depends on the hard work and coordination of the whole team of TV channel. Lots of people differ in their duties and job are working together to achieve one single goal i.e. just to make the best news bulletin and to provide their viewers something new and different.  Here I am going to discuss news production, software’s, and equipments used in news making process. First of all I am going to describe the software’s and equipments used by which people so that news process can easily be understand Later.

Various software’s used in news making:

Adobe Photoshop:

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Photoshop Extended, with the Extended having extra 3D image creation, motion graphics editing, and advanced image analysis features. Adobe only supports Windows and Macintosh versions of Photoshop, but using Wine, Photoshop CS5 can run reasonably well on Linux. Run down producer edit different stills and other footages with the help of Photoshop.

Adobe Premiere Pro:

Adobe Premiere Pro is a timeline-based video editing software application. It is part of the Adobe Creative Suite, a suite of graphic design, video editing and web development applications developed by Adobe Systems, though it can also be purchased separately. It comes bundled with Adobe Media Encoder, Adobe Encore and Adobe OnLocation. Starting with the version in Creative Suite 5 (CS5)I it is a native 64-bit application for Mac OS X and Windows 7. As a 64-bit application, it does not run on 32-bit computers.
Premiere Pro is used by broadcasters such as the BBC and The Tonight Show. It has been used in feature films, such as The Social Network, Captain Abu Raed, and Monsters, and other venues such as Madonna's Confessions Tour.

Adobe premiere pro is used by NLE and rundown producer to edit videos, voice over, feeds and packages. news room transferred simple videos to rundown producer, He with along with NLE edit them with the help of Adobe Premiere Pro, because Premiere Pro supports high resolution video editing at up to 10,240 × 8,192 resolution, at up to 32-bits per channel color, in both RGB and YUV. Audio sample-level editing, VST audio plug-in support, and 5.1 surround sound mixing are available. Premiere Pro's plug-in architecture enables it to import and export formats beyond those supported by QuickTime or DirectShow, supporting a wide variety of video and audio file formats and codec’s on both MacOS and Windows. When used with Cineform's Neo line of plug-ins, it supports 3D editing with the ability to view 3D material using 2D monitors, while making individual left and right eye adjustments.
In addition to the effects and transitions included with Premiere Pro, third party plug-ins may enhance the software's capability.

Avid:

"The Avid", is a type of computer software application known as a Non-linear editing system (NLE). It is the flagship product of Avid Technology. It is editing software used for editing movies and video clips. It is advance software then other it has ability to edit more frames rather than other. It was released in 1989 on the Macintosh II as an offline editing system. Since that time, the application features have increased to allow for film editing, uncompressed standard definition (SD) video and high definition (HD) editing and finishing. Since the early 1990s, Media Composer has been the dominant non-linear editing system in the film and television industry, first on Mac and then also on Windows. The Avid News cutter, aimed at newsrooms, Avid Symphony, aimed at finishing, are all Avid products that were derived from Media Composer and share similar interfacing, as were Avid Xpress Pro (discontinued in 2008) and its predecessor Avid Xpress DV, which were aimed at the lower end of the market. It is frequently referred as media composer.

Final cut pro:

Final Cut Pro is a non-linear video editing software developed by Macromedia Inc. and later Apple Inc. it is used by non linear editor for editing videos, clips and footages. It has more transitions and effects then other software’s. Final Cut Pro provides non-linear, non-destructive editing of any QuickTime-compatible video format including DV, HDV, P2 MXF (DVCProHD), XDCAM (via plug-in), and 2K film formats. It supports a number of simultaneously composited video tracks (limited mainly by video format and hardware capability); up to 99 audio tracks; multi-camera editing for combining video from multiple camera sources; as well as standard ripple, roll, slip, slide, scrub, razor blade and time remapping edit functions. It comes with a range of video transitions and a range of video and audio filters such as keying tools, mattes and vocal de-poppers and de-essers. It also has a manual 3-way color correction filter, videoscopes and a selection of generators, such as slugs, test cards and noise that’s why because of these features it is mostly used by NLE in news production.

Sony Vegas pro:

Sony Vegas Pro is a video editing software package for non-linear editing systems (NLE) originally published by Sonic Foundry, now owned and run by Sony Creative Software. Originally developed as an audio editor, it eventually developed into an NLE for video and audio from version 2.0. Vegas do not require any specialized hardware to run properly, allowing it to operate on almost any standard Windows computer across a broad range of hardware. In areas of compositing and motion graphics Vegas provides a broad tool set including 3D track motion compositing with control over z-depth, and spatial arrangement of visual planes including plane intersection. Unfortunately key framing of simple 2D motion lacks Bezier adjustments and multiple key framed smooth motion is marred by slowdowns or hesitations at each key frame. Effects can be applied at any stage of the visual signal flow — event level, track level and output level effects, much like reverb, delay and flange audio effects are applied in a digital audio system, like Pro Tools, Cubase or Sonar.
It is also one of the few NLEs which can convert other formats to 24p (or any format to any other format) without any kind of a plug-in or third-party application support and is the only proprietary NLE that allows for multiple instances of the application to be opened simultaneously. Clips and sequences can be copied and pasted between instances of Vegas. Vegas provide sophisticated compositing including green screen, masking, and key frame animation. Sony Vegas Pro supports scripting technology which provides task automation, simplified workflow, and greater efficiency and productivity. Scripts and extensions Free and paid for pre-written scripts are available from the Vegas community on the web. Vegas have won awards. Major broadcasters have utilized the software, including Nightline with Ted Koppel.

Viz RT:

This software is not used for the production of graphics but used for playing graphics, News strips.

Winplus:

Winplus software is used for connecting rundown on the teleprompter. First of all rundown will b selected from the octopus software then there is a command of MOS active and TOGGLE ready. After that we will go on the Win plus and click double time on the particular bulletin which has to connect on teleprompter.  for example if bulletin of 9 'o' clock is going to b on air then I click double time on the bulletin selected for 9'o' clock. Then this bulletin is displayed on the prompter with the help of winplus .

ENPS:

ENPS is only multi-platform news production system. ENPS used by journalists in more than 800 newsrooms in over 60 countries, ENPS fits the needs of demanding news environments by including powerful, easy-to-use features to give journalists the tools to focus on their craft and let the technology run in the background. For newsrooms of all sizes, ENPS is the ideal solution, featuring scalable, dependable architecture that can be tightly integrated with third party products. ENPS gives you choice. Build the end-to-end system that fits your budget and your needs.

Skylark Technology:

Skylark technology offers a tape-less technology which is specially designed for TV news production in small TV companies. The SL NEO media server allow to substantially reduce cost and at the same time increase effectiveness of the news production process. The offered solution is based on cost-effective SL NEO 1000...5000 series media-servers and client workstation software.
The functionality of the SL NEO based solution is on par with demands of modern TV new production studios:
·         Multi-channel capture and recording of signals of different formats and carrier types to server's disk array (batch captures from tape as well as from live signal sources);
·         Automated media-file import to server's storage array;
·         Collective editing using networked proxy-copies without large media-file copying to NLE and back to servers, the resulting EDLs are instantly ready for playback;
·         Media-files being recording are accessible for editing before the end of the recording process;
·         Real-time composition and editing of play-lists during play-back;
·         Mixed play-back of media of different types (cameras/live, media-file/tape) according to play-out schedule, fully controlled by the operator;
·         Multilayer graphic design using parametrizable templates which can be tied to events in main play-out schedule;
·         Media-file interchange with Final CUT Pro, Adobe Premiere and other NLE system, integration with media-archives;

During production of time-critical materials, one of the most important features of the SL NEO media-servers is the ability to carry out NLE editing on networked client workstations using low-resolution proxy-copies without copying of large media-files from servers to NLE and back. Source media-files are stored in one or many SL NEO based media-storages and all the users work with media directly off the servers without copying any data to their local workstations. The result of the editing is stored in the server's media storage as an XML-based EDL and can be used for playback immediately without time-consuming rendering or copying large media-files back to servers. The play-back is managed using Broadcast-client software by executing play-lists in manual mode. Thanks to the SL NEO Media-storage technology, source files can be used for editing during recording or ingest process.

The SL NEO NLE Client (News CUT) provides a set of effects for audio and video tracks. Among others there are 2D video transformations, chroma keying, playback speed control and audio levels editor. It allows creating complex multi-track compositions on the Time-Line, adding X/V and Mix/Wipe transitions, adding voice-overs. Graphics layers may include text, banners, backgrounds, picture in picture with 2D transformations, semi-transparent animations.Rendering of the resulting EDLs together with audio/video effects and graphics is done at the server in real-time during playback process. However, the resulting video-clip may still be rendered to a media-file at a client-workstation. 

Play back system:

This system is used in production control room PCR for playing visuals including news footages, voice over, packages, titles etc. everything which is going to b broadcast through channel is firstly arranged on play back system through panel producer in production control room.  Adobe premiere or octopus software’s are used for this purpose, there may be one or two systems for the play back system if one is out of order then the other can be used in emergency.

Octopus software:

This software is used for making rundown on rundown production by rundown producer. It is used to line up news bulletin, telling the news with prompter and for connecting or coordinating with the panel team. It is also used for taking strips for Headlines, news strips, still, beepers and breaking graphics. This software help the rundown producer to made and organize the news bulletin in most organized form.
These software’s are used in the news making process depending upon their need and qualities varying from their functions. Here is list of equipments used in news room for news production

Equipments used in news making process:


One or so many cameras are used in news making process. They are operated by camera man. It is the main equipment because it is actually main organ because all the process is delivered to mass audience through this equipment. Various cameras are arranged in the studio varying on their quality and camera Lenz range.

Lights:

Lights are very compulsory equipment because they illuminate our object/subject as well as the surroundings they are very important to give the natural and glowing look to our subjects. Usually used in whole studio and operated by light man and its assistance.

Audio console and microphones:

We need one or more audio consoles, along with sound control equipment, to manipulate the sounds we generate with microphones, audio recorders and players, and other devices. Audio console is usually used by panel producer to control and mix different audios. It is usually consisted of 34 to 36 channels. Microphones are operator.
An audio control room, with audio console, cart machines, turntable and/or CD player, reel to reel and/or cassette and/or DAT recorder and/or other digital recording and playback technology, and auxiliary audio enhancement equipment

Video console:

It is also known as video mixer. One or more video switchers, to select video sources, perform basic transitions between those sources, and to create special effects. It is usually used in panel production for video mixing it has link with all the cameras present                                in the studio and with its help we can easily moves from one camera to others without creating any blur. It is usually operated by technical director (TD).

  Tape recorders:

One or more videotape recorders, or other video recording technologies, in any of a number of formats, usually used by reporters

EFP:

EFP (electronic field production) shooting and production equipment is used by reporters and it is usually used in news gathering because it is easily manageable and it have attached mike rather then other cameras

Floor monitors (video and audio):

Floor monitors are used for monitoring.

Intercom system:

An intercom system (with headset stations for floor directors) used by floor manager to coordinated with the director, producer and other crew.

Satellite monitoring:

Master control Room, aloted with bundles of equipments without which this whole TV program can't get on the air.  Anything which is going to be broadcast is gathered here from the panel production room and from here satellite monitoring it is transferred to satellite from here through boosters and cables it is broadcasted to the general audience.

Engineering department:

An engineering department to keep all of this running, and design and build new and improved facilities.
ü  in addition, your control room or control centre will have various program and preview monitors
ü  Electrical outlets for both regular AC and lighting equipment
ü  program audio speakers
ü  Time of day clock
ü  central VTR, with its various videotape machines
After discussing the equipments and software’s used in news process now I give u detailed description of news production. Let’s have a look on news making procedure.

NEWS PRODUCTION:

First of all the procedure of news production starts from assignment desk.

ASSIGNMENT DESK:

Assignment desk is the place from where beat are assigned to the reporters or correspondents that are the first source of any channel...

SOURCES:

There are some sources of the news channels from where they get the news. Few are discussed here.

A.      REPORTER/ CORRESPONDENT:

Reporters are those people who work in the headquarter city of the channels where as correspondents are those who work in other cities and countries. They are usually paid by channels they provide news to channels. Reporters/correspondent sends their news and footages from far places with the help of FTP (FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL).

B.    PRESS releases:

They are issued by either government or private institutions either sends by ISPR and DGPR are also one of the important source.

C.    Monitoring desk:

There are various screens on the monitoring desk watches national and international channels for updating news and try to sort out what is missing in their channel some news and footages are captured by other channels through monitoring.

D.    News Agencies:

News agencies are one of the important source .due to lack of resources channels hire news agencies channels avail services of news agencies like APP and REUTERS etc for news and footages.

News room:

Different News is gathered in the news room from various sources discussed above and then organized in the news room. News room is also known as city room. News editor along with other staff members work here to cheek and maintain the present news in the sequence wise order. Ticker Operator, assignment desk and monitoring desk are also part of news room. News editor select some important news from 1000 of news keeping in mind about the policy of news channels and their priorities .main part of the news is selected as the oc and headlines are made from the oc.
Then these selected news are transferred to NLE. NON LINEAR EDITER where NLE edit all the relative material related to news stories like packages, voice over’s, footages and sots and add graphics, logo and visuals. He use many software’s like adobe Photoshop, adobe premiere, final cut pro, avid, Sony Vegas pro. He has to edit the news according to the duration selected by the news editor then news with relative material is transferred to rundown production department with either white red or yellow color status.

 Rundown Production:

Rundown production is operates by the rundown producer. Rundown is actually reviewed of whole bulletin, for the various crew members with directions. This is easy for the crew .it list all different pieces of show in blocks.
 Rundown producer arrange rundown of news bulletin segment vise (National, international, Sports, Business, Weather and Entertainment) and decide which will be part of bulletin and where it will be placed.
Rundown producer go through the whole news story and have a look on all the relative material. He has to arrange news sequence wise and work on the news on yellow status because he has to transfer the news in green status. It has to overview all the work related to news. He transferred news along with relative materials like packages, v/o etc. NLE Department edits packages using Adobe Premiere Pro CS5 and CS6 ,Final Cut Pro, Sony Vegas Pro, Sony Sound Forge, and adobe Photoshop Software for Making Video Packages and their Treatment .done by NLE. He has to correct any mistake left by NLE, after previewing the whole news story and relative materials. Then he transfer news in form of rundown to PCR production control room with green color status.

PCR:

PCR stands for production control room anything which is going to be broadcasted is under his duty. he has to arrange all the data on the play back system with the help of octopus software audios and videos are align on the it and he has to coordinate with all the crew and staff members and to check floor and studio arrangement , deals with camera man, anchors and others people which are responsible for news telecast .

ANCHOR:

Anchor starts the bulletin. News telecast is organized by using audio and video console.

Creative department:

During transition creative department try their level best to make presentation of your bulletin more impressive and persuasive. They made related tickers, logos, name bar, related cubes, 3D animation and strips.

Master control room:

News bulletin which is recorded is transfered to MCR . MCR has link with al the studios and cameras... everything which is going to be broadcasted first come here and from hereit is transmited through transmeter to satellite .from where with the help of cables and boosters they reached to the target audience.

NEWS PRODUCTION:


In a nutshell, News making is not a simple and easy task. Struggle and coordination of whole team is behind it. Single mistake of anybody is going to put everyone in trouble. News channels struggles a lot for giving information to their general public. They try their level best to give new and interesting information to their audience sometimes on sacrifice of media ethics.

By: Ayesha Batool