projects releated to advertisement



 Effective Advertisement on Mobile phones...




    Mobile communication is widely used all over the world and this research paper is written on usage of wireless network as a new advertising media. It is basically compiled report of 53 case studies written to analyze the current trends in the mobile advertisement. It describes an overview of conceptual models for advertising and suggests the conceptual model for mobile phone advertising. Factors affecting the mobile advertising are also presented in it. In a nut shell this paper basically describes qualities of online advertisement and its comparison with other types of advertising Medias.

   With the technological advancement and with constantly increasing consumer's needs and demands, functions of mobile communication devices are emerging. features of multimedia in cell phones like, increased display size, improved color display, polyphonic sound and video playback etc are also expanding .because of their special design and features mobile devices are considered as personal and private rather than desktops and laptops or simple telephones , which forms a peculiar attitude towards mobile communication. Mobile capabilities enable various types of interactions with the user, which opens up a way of using mobile media for advertising. According to Ovum’s study the revenue generate from mobile advertisement all over the world will reach between $16 billion by year 2005.
        Advertising is a method of building a product image and stimulating direct purchase. With the passage of time and with the technological advancement new types of advertising media have been introduced. First generation of Advertising media includes Billboards, newspapers and magazines while Radio and TV followed as the next generation media. Recently, Emerging Advertising Media I-e Internet and mobile networks have emerged as a new type of advertising media, because of these characteristics
*      ease of targeting
*      personalized contents
*      and interactivity
The important point is that the consumer should have an option to choose whether or not to receive an advertisement through mobile/internet.  Moreover mobile communication is perceived as a truly private way of intercommunication, because people of this century have much concern about their privacy. In mobile advertisement consumers can easily have a feeling that their privacy is invaded because There have been several studies on advertisements designing.
Advertisements in newspapers or magazines are of a pull-type because the message is transferred by the free will of the audience. It means that when a person read any information or content, this is something chose by him according to his own desire without any external pressure .Thus the level of involvement is extremely high while reading and the reason is no one force him to do this. TV and radio are of a push-type of advertising media as the audience sits in front of a TV and views what appears on the screen the message or information appears on the screen is controlled by the advertisement agency and the involvement level is relatively low because audience free will is not involved. If someone is watching his favorite show and want to relax for some time. During commercial breaks it might be possible he did not pay full attention to the TV. So the level of involvement decreases and that’s why it is called push-type of advertising media. On the other hand advertising through the internet and mobile has both push- and pull-types; one corresponds to email advertisements and the other corresponds to web advertisements. When the customer uses a mobile device as a browser, the effect of an advertisement is similar to a web banner. Likewise, if the customer receives text or multimedia promotional messages in the mobile setting, it works like an email advertisement. By the type of message, mobile advertising is divided into a pure advertisement or an attached advertisement its mean that either directly advertisement or by attaching the advertisement content with some other content at the end of the msg or by mobile banner in an indirect way to increase the chance of exposure of the advertisement. To increase the advertisement effects and creditability there is chance in future to do advertising by combining different advertising mediums like magazines, mobiles, TV and radio etc.
There are various models explaining how advertising works in different situations. These models can be categorized as:
*      the market response model,
*      intermediate effect model,
*      hierarchy effect model and
*      Hierarchy-free model.

The market response model relates advertising, price and promotions
Directly to consumer's behavior. Two levels exist in the market response model; aggregate level and individual level. This model is suitable for the decision-makers within marketing departments in industry.
 The cognitive information model assumes that consumer preferences are
Not changed by advertising and that the consumer decides only rationally. In contrast, pure affect models focus on affective attributes, such as familiarity and feelings. By this theory, the preference of the audience is built by elements such as feelings, emotions and familiarities rather than product attribute information. In this model, affective responses to advertising show two kinds of attitude; Attitude to the advertisement itself and attitude to the brand.
  The hierarchy of effect model tries to explain consumer behavior by introducing the concept of a hierarchy of effects. In other words, persuasive hierarchy models, low-involvement hierarchy models and integrative models assume that the intermediate effects follow a certain sequence of order. They assumes certain number of stages, each of which works as a precondition of the next stage. Researchers basically categorized the Functions of advertising as awareness, knowledge, linking, preference, conviction and purchase. They mapped each function to three different behavioral dimensions; cognitive, affective and cognitive components.
In other words, awareness and knowledge are related to the cognitive component, and linking and preference are associated with the affective component. Finally, conviction and purchase are connected with the cognitive or motivational component.
The elaboration likelihood model suggested by Petty and Cacioppo (1981, 1983) tried to explain under different levels of involvement how consumers are persuaded. It is claimed that there are two distinct ways that lead to persuasion;
 one is the central route, in which audiences perceive the message through cognition, reasoning and comprehension the second is the peripheral route in which people change their attitude just by simple positive or negative cues.
 The implication of the elaboration likelihood model is that different people respond to different advertisements in different ways, depending on their involvement.
In the hierarchy-free model, no specific processing sequence is assumed. This category presents a person-centered view of advertising, which suggests that advertising is part of a brand totality. Beliefs generally in the hierarchy-free model, no specific processing sequence is assumed. This category presents a person-centered view of advertising, which suggests that advertising is part of a brand totality.
   Different models can be applied according to various factors, such as Product, characteristics, brand image, involvement of the audience and media characteristics. Several models are developed for explaining Phenomena in marketing and advertising. It is hard to say which model would best for mobile advertising because it depends on a number of factors that have not as yet been clarified.
  Moreover the factors that have a significant influence on the effect of advertising can be divided into three categories
*      advertisement factors
*      environmental factors
*      And audience factors.
In advertising factor design of advertisement should be effective specially music and animation or pictures in the advertisement should be designed in such a way that it has a good effect on the viewers because according to various studies music have positive effects on the viewers of TV commercials in a low involving condition. While animated
Pictures were found to have good effects on an internet shopping site. It could attract consumers’ attention and produce good attitudes toward the advertisements. About the length of the commercials few advertising agencies believes that 15-second commercials are from 50–90% as effective as 30-second commercials in creating learning and attitudinal change. On the other hand Mord and Gilson (1985) claimed that 15-second television commercials were not as effective as 30-second commercials
In the viewpoint of transferring information, inducing interests and providing credibility of the advertisement. If repetition of advertisement increases then its effectiveness also increases but effectiveness decreases when repetition exceed certain level.    
  Content of the message mean presentation should be strong because advertiser tries to pass on the information in which audience is not actually so much interested. On the basis of content there are two groups: Informative messages rely on the cognitive processing of the audience, which is more effective on functional products, whereas affective messages appeal to emotional processing, which is suitable for expressive and playful products. The limited amount of information gives an implication that advertisements appealing to emotions would be more appropriate for the mobile environment, but the rather high involvement level of mobile media suggests that cognitive processing of the message, the attitude to context and distracter could be dominant. Especially, the concept of context for the mobile advertisement needs to be extended because the surroundings include not only the competing information, but also location, time and task. Business objective describes the aim of the company, such as increasing awareness, raising funds and driving sales. The marketing technique is the method used to accomplish the business objective. This can be in the form of prizes, coupons, giveaways or other methods.
Products that are suitable for advertising through mobile commerce are thought to be limited by several factors, such as the attitude of customers to mobile advertisements and brand, interaction context, product categories and ease of access together with the emotional component best suited for mobile marketing.
 Because of the limited capacity of communication and multimedia
Expression in mobile devices, SMS has been the most
Prevalent method of advertisement until now.
It is expected that in the near future multimedia or animated picture-type Advertisements will be more popular than other means.


BY : AYESHA BATOOL