Sunday, June 30, 2013

ROLE OF ART IN ADVERTISEMENT

Abstract:
In this research paper I argued that how art is affecting advertisement, where and why art is emerged in the advertising medium. This work is about the role of art, and about the use of paintings, sculptures and visual forms of art in advertising. Advertising is about the selling of the pieces of the world whereas art is about the showing of beauty and ugliness of the artist’s feelings and emotions, his thoughts and ideas. Both art and advertisement is potentially pole apart in nature from one another as one, advertisement depends on the commission earning while other Art is mostly free from commercial concerns. I found that in spite of these apparent differences advertising and art are strongly interconnected they are linked to each other. Both depend on one another as, advertising calls upon the art to give status to the product and art calls upon the forms and spaces of advertising to communicate in a framework that is more immediately understood by the public. Art uses elements derived from the advertisement whereas advertisement makes use of artistic achievement. I found that it is not the happening of modern age but from the far history people used the work of artistes for achieving their advertising interest. Art had a long relationship with the advertising. Artistic work of some artists are also mentioned which were later used by the advertiser for advertising purposes. Advertisement actually itself is a form of visual art. Firstly only visual art was used in advertising but now 3D street art, chalk art, graffiti art, logo art is also become the part of advertising. Presence of these arts makes the advertising more attractive and persuasive.  Merging of art and advertising seems complete and it is difficult to keep art away from the advertising. You yourself try to find any ad which is without the artistic touch hardly you found any one. In a nut shell art is the heart of advertising, advertising along with art has a great impact on the audience and art increases the value of advertising because with the help of art advertiser try to catch the audience mind and try to manipulate them by their artistic skills and creativity.Introduction:
 Advertising and art is neither one item by any mean nor there is any significant difference between both of them on the basis of practice and nature. Art and advertisement is however different from one another due to their nature and notion of business. Potentially both are different from one another as art is free from commercial concerns while advertisement is totally dependent on them. As in the previous decades art only deals with the pictures, music, sculptural and painting but now in our era anything creative could be art. Advertisement is incomplete without the art because art made the advertisement persuasive and attractive.  The relationship of art and advertisement is not new from the far history people advertised by mean of art so as far back as in the dark ages artistic work has been utilized for brand advertising and self promotion. In the Louver there is a 550 BC painting talking about buying. In the ruins of ancient Arabia commercial and political messages have been found. Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome used papyrus to advertise products and ideas. Wall rock advertising was common in Africa and Asia as well as South America. In every era people take help from the art to advertise their products or they tried to communicate their messages and ideas by mean of art, either through painting or through sculptures art has been used to sell products. From the turn of the century through the 1950s, the explosive growth of popular magazines and national advertising offered artists new sources of income and new opportunities for reaching huge audiences. Now in 21st century the relationship between the art and advertising is become increasingly varied and complex and advertising strategies borrow both the tactics and imagery of contemporary art. It is still the mission of advertising to persuade and to create wants and desires in a way that prompts the purchase of the product and for achieving this mission advertising agencies are taking aid from art . in spite of their different nature Both depend on one another as, advertising calls upon the art to give status to the product and art calls upon the forms and spaces of advertising to communicate in a framework that is more immediately understood by the public. Advertising and art both have a strong relation, the men who plan advertising makes the development of advertising as an art and progress of art in advertising and exhibition of this art through mass media is advertising. Likability has always been important for advertisers as advertising liking is the strongest aspect associated to persuasion and sales and advertisement is made persuasive only by creativity and art. As With the help of art you can make content of ad persuasive and interesting.
Hagtvedt and Patrick (2008b) suggest that the
“Presence of art in advertising affects the brand image via luxury perceptions.”
 According to them, it is basically a form of image transfer from the artwork onto the advertised brand, colored by the positive sensations of luxury and exclusivity.  Effectiveness of your commercials or ads depends on the way you communicate your printed or electronic commercials specially depends on the Art layout. One can create attractive ads only by the help of art layout. The goal of art layout is to influence your reader or audience and urge them to read or listen your ad and manipulate them but the key is art layout should be so Simple and creative that it can easily understandable and fluently convey your message. For designing art layout there is a department in the ad agencies known as creative department .this department is the engine of the ad agency as the success of commercial depend upon the creativity or artistic ideas chosen by this department. An ad agency is only as good as the ads the creative department puts out. It is the backbone of the ad agency as it is responsible for all the creative and artistic work related to product advertisement. Both in art and advertisement artist try to communicate it message in such a way that it directly hit the consumer and try to make them feel that it is part of your life both medium attempt to open the audience mind in to a new way of thinking, in art artist try to make the people to look with his eye that this is how I see the world  and in advertising they forced the audience to look according to the organizational perspective, but in both the cases it is in the viewers hand to take what meaning from the message. In a nut shell all advertising is art; not all art is advertising as advertising uses the same forms as visual art does. Advertising in somehow itself is an art because advertiser has to communicate his messages clearly in an artistic way so that customer or consumer can understand it easily in 30 or maximum 45 seconds slot.Literature review:Advertising is a tool of marketing or form of communication of marketers which they used to manipulate or persuade the audience to increase the sales ratio and to create a good image among competitors. Advertisement is usually paid for, it always had an identified sponsor it is non personal communication from an identified sponsor who using mass media to persuade or influence audience. Advertiser, the one whose company or product is to be advertised often hires the advertising agency to deal with whole advertising process. Advertising can obviously rely heavily on art.  In short advertising as a whole itself is an art. As it use visual form of art.A new University of Georgia study has found that exposure to visual art in advertising, even if the exposure is brief, makes consumers evaluate products more positively, ScienceDaily.com reports.
“Visual art has been used as a tool for persuasion from past era,” said Henrik Hagtvedt, who himself is an artist.
  The purpose of all advertising is to sell something. The technique used to sell is to create desire in the intended audience. In order to create desire, a low or high form of art, either skillfully or poorly rendered, is used.  But it is used in such a creative manner that in an advertising context, the viewer cannot be estimated the image as an artwork instead; it is evaluated as an advertisement context by the viewer. Ultimately results in increases the sales percentage of the product and services. For this purpose art department is established in the advertising agencies where art director and his coworkers works for giving a visual form to the creative material provided by the creative department. The art director is responsible for the visual aspects. Art director should have graphic design judgment and technical knowledge of production, it makes his work easier. It is not always necessary for an art director to hand-render comprehensive. His most preliminary work is done on computer. Except in the smallest organizations, the art director/copywriter team is direct by a creative director, senior media creative, chief creative director. In a large organization, an art director may overlook other art directors and a team of junior designers, image developers or production artists, and he coordinates with a separate production department known as art department. While In a smaller organization, the art director may fill all these roles, including oversight of printing and other production. Art is not difference from the advertising in a sense that in a present age anything creative is art there is no boundaries to the word art. Person doing something new and attractive is artist. Similarly this art is utilized in the advertising where art designer has to decide how to present the creative words and ideas into a visualize form so that it hit the audience in a short duration of 30 to 45 sec. this is an artistic work. Commercial is produced with the help of visual arts and graphics etc, art is used to give shape to the creative ideas in the print medium by mean of still images, clip arts etc here in print medium one has to understand advertiser’s point of view by just looking at the advertisement in the print medium and this is only possible with the help of artistic thinking and artistic layout. Advertisement is worthless without art. In the past decades art is often used to advertise but at that time artists like to work alone. with the passage of time and advancement in technology and thinking advertiser gives opportunities to the artists to join their forum and work together. the creative dimension of art help the advertiser to increase the efficiency of the ad without increasing the budget of advertising. Ad with the good artistic picture has definitely good rating rather than advertising without the art but the success of advertising does not only relay on the artistic dimension but product’s quality dimension is also important. Advertising plays very important role in social and art history as it always provided a platform for creative people.         Advertising:Advertisement is actually a bridge between an organization and its oriented audience, through the advertisement an organization communicates its messages to its audiences along with promoting their products and services. It is actually done to manipulate the people’s minds so that they happen to buy their product and it is also used to create a good will of the organization in the society. It actually allows companies to tell the public that the organization is fulfilling the needs and demands of public and to introduce their products, solution of public needs and demands in a better way which distinguish it from other products available in the market. Advertisement actually provides information to us about the products, services and brands of our needs and helps us identifying the better option suitable to our need.
Different organizations basically use advertising for distinct purposes:
  • For establishing the products brand name, because we people become brand conscious, to build a contract of trust and confidence with its customers. Because when trust is lost customers obviously switch to other products.  Organizations advertised to make their product best one among the customer’s list of options.
  • To inform public about the difference in prices for the same or comparable product e.g. there is difference in price of Nestle and Daily Omang milk pack.
  • Quality of Nestle and Olpers is better than Tarang milk they advertised to inform people about the quality of their products to make it better among competitors.
  • To provide the sufficient information and knowledge about their products, telling special features and qualities of the product that how it is different from other products.
  • Through advertising we come to know that which product is suitable according to our need. Because it provides us a much better range of options. E.g. we see lots of TVC in a day but we only buy those products which is suitable to our demand.
  • If advertising is persuasive and effective then it can ultimately be successful in convincing the purchaser to buy the products.
Advertising agency has four basic departments·         Account department
·         Creative department
·         Art department
·         Media department
Although every department is efficient and important in the agency but here I m going to discuss the art department only and its hierarchy which is related to my topic:
The work of this department is to converts the creative concepts into final advertisements by giving visual shape to the creative ideas. the Production Manager accomplishes the task using the services of printers, photographers, engravers and typographers for print ad. usually the production department of an ad agency hires a director to convert the creative concept into a final commercial, if commercial has to be broadcast on TV.
Copywriters and Art Directors:
Both of them usually work as team. The CW/AD team has to work on brief. When ideas are offered and chosen, they will then work jointly to craft copy and make visuals for the ad campaign. There are many levels of copywriter and art director, ranging from junior to associate creative director.
Designers :
 There are different types of designers, plus those who talented in graphic design, web design and even product design. However, most agencies have graphic designers in their staff to assist the art directors and copywriters. Designers are of great important as they can take ideas to the next level and add the remaining thing that the creative team missed to add.
All of them jointly work for making the commercial visually perfect.
In short Advertising plays very important role in social and art history as it always provided a platform for creative people. In advertising there is a large scope of creativity and provide a substantial work and public display for the talent of world’s best artists like photographer, film maker, graphic artists, indeed artist of every description as, creative artist provides creative ideas, themes, inspirational and innovative taglines or catch lines. Each and every type of business organizations use advertisement to run their business successfully as well as government sectors advertise to communicate their public service messages and government projects or to tackle social problems like drunk driving, low disease awareness, and domestic violence etc.  Advertising should be done by taking care about the people’s state of mind. Advertiser actually plays with people’s mind and emotions. They try each and every thing to make their product part of consumer’s life.
 How much impressive or persuasive nature of advertising is, it is still in the hands of the consumer to be manipulated by the ad or not. Advertisement cannot convince any consumer to buy a specific product against his will. It is only the decision of consumer what to buy. Here I m going to discuses the art department  
Art:
Art is anything you can get away with …
There is no single definition of art.
 Wartenberg (2006) convey 29 diverse views on the definition of art
Plato’s point of view is that art is an imitation,
Tolstoy’s state that art is a medium for emotions,
Nietzsche’s think art as a redemption.
The art historian Robert Rosenblum believes that "the idea of defining art is so remote [today]" that he doesn't think "anyone would dare to do it."
“Art is not what you see, but what you make others to see”   Edgar degas.
 Art is an imagination. It is the creative human ability or skill to communicate its feelings, emotions and ideas in their language by mean of different types of art forms i.e. literary art, sculptures, painting, architecture, printmaking, electronic media such as computer and digital graphics, ceramics, Visual Design, Graphic Design, collage, photography and Post Modern appropriation and recontextualisation, music, dance and drama etc by using different methods and techniques.
In an advertising context, the viewer cannot be expected to view the image as an artwork –
Instead, it is likely to be evaluated as an advertisement.
VISUAL ARTS is mostly used by the advertisers and has great importance in this field. Visual art is where an artist uses media materials such as, images, signs and symbols and the available technology to communicate his expression. The Visual Arts can be emotional but it depends on the artist how the artist makes you think (structural). It can be about environment physical or cultural, or it can be a mixture of all depending upon the desire of advertiser that what he want.
The Visual Arts are about art for society, art for the self, art for religion, art for profit and art for art’s sake. The Visual Arts consisted of building blocks called the Elements of Design or Composition and these elements are composed according to the guidelines called Principles of Design or Composition.
Is the art in which the material we use are made visually interesting and satisfying, formed for a purpose and functional, they work the way they are supposed to. A task in which goals and the means to attain the goal are marked out
Visual designs are a draft outline showing the main features of a advertisement project.
Generally, a designed product must work, be reliable, be good value for money and look good according to the taste of the buyer or audience.
Every advertisement either it is of baby’s pampers or related to military hardware, everything from baby shoes to garment each and every advertisement have visual desgining as a main element in their production process    
History:
In the ancient times advertising was nearly impossible for most of the artist unless his work is shown for exhibition in the gallery or he himself use advertising medium by buying space in magazines etc which was not always possible because of their economic status in the past artists use advertising medium for promotion of their work. At that time posters were used for achieving advertising purposes, because it is affordable, creative and effective. every surface, doors, walls, sides of buildings, light poles, anywhere you could glue a poster but advertising through pestering after few time become so difficult due to lack availability of space because people become conscious about their area and think to earn by giving space on rent they try to threatened others that not to advertised without giving charges to the landlords. Then slowly slowly art makes space in advertising and start is merging in advertising, now advertisers use art to make their work more interesting and persuasive and promote their products through their artistic work. There are abundant works of art that have become such legendary and iconic that this Famous art works get referenced in advertising Later.
“Historically Visual art has been used as a tool for persuasion,” said Henrik Hagtvedt, who himself is an artist.
The use of art in radio and television advertising approximately began in 1920s when few corporations bring artist in their advertising field to take advantage from their skills and use them to give their corporations a good will and to create positive image in regards to the brand and to incorporate various social ideals that were relevant during the times; such as a respectable reputation, and wholesome dynamic image. Fine artists were used to create logos, catch lines, taglines and art that represented a corporation in simple, yet powerful aesthetic forms.  Here I like to give some examples in which at that time advertisers take help of art.
This magazine advertisement for a car company “Honda” had the catch phrase: "Thoughtful, through and through." What famous art work is this referring to?”
This ad is actually referring the sculpture “the thinker” by Auguste Rodin.  
Next was an old ad for a computer company. Does she look familiar to you?
In this ad advertiser try to give her look like Monaliza just for promoting their computer company. This painting is as similar as the painting of Monaliza only the lady is changed.
The next example is an illustration in a newspaper accompanying a business article. This drawing of a construction worker pointing at the factory is meant to imply his fear of that factory. How do we know this? It is actually based on a painting of Henri Rousseau. “The Dream” where a woman in a jungle is pointing at the source of her fears a pair of lions. But in this ad the girl is beautifully replaced by the worker and girl’s fear of lion is replaced by the fear of worker.
This was a popular movie which had as its signature moment this pose as depicted below. Where do you think this came from? It is from the artistic painting “The Scream” of Edward Munch. 
All the artistic paintings mentioned above were the inspiration for the advertiser, and thus they turn their work in the advertisement by changing their art. That’s how advertisers use the artistic work in the history for the advertising purposes.
Lady lever was one of the pioneers of modern advertising. Lever often visit art exhibitions in London and bought pictures which were stunning and would appeal and have strong affect to the housewives who were his customers. Lever then made copies of those paintings, adding the Sunlight brand name and slogan on them. Soap wrappers contained vouchers that could be collected and exchanged for prints. A very modern idea that is still popular today in advertising was started by Lady Lever at that time. He often use painting of different artists for advertising purposes even artists didn't mind by Lever this act of using their art in this way. William Powell Frith complained that Lever had changed the meaning of his painting by using it for advertising.  Between 1886 and 1906 Lever spent over £2 million on such type of advertising. He also encouraged his customers to collect prints reproduced from his collection.
Broadcasting industries like Radio, starts using art in advertising to convince the Federal Communication Commission of the purpose of the brand, at the highest level of marketing.  Broadcasting Corporations used art that appealed to both small town and big city mentality in a same way. During the 1940s, CBS and NBC commissioned artists to create art that would help to promote not only their radio networks, but also the visual of the company image for television. The visual way was the selling point for the organizations, and television was the new technological visual of that times. Art was the one way for corporations to bring onward their products, into the homes of people at all socioeconomic levels with the help of this technology which soon become the essential part of the family. As the medium of television grew, more artists were employed in the arts departments of the advertising agencies. Artists gave organizations a public "face," through use of notable trademarks, such as the CBS eye and the NBC peacock.
The role of Art in advertising:
Art is the heart of the advertising. Art in nature is imaginative it doesn’t try to sell something external to the art while in advertisement it is used to increasing the selling ratio of the products . Advertisers uses the formal and conceptual tropes of art disciplines specially the visual form of art. With the help of visual art advertisers makes their product persuasive and attracting. Advertiser can take art and use it for achieving some specific goals and outcomes. Artist never portrait art favorably to get the desired outcome his art is just describing his state of mind and emotions. But when it is put in the advertisement field then it is portrayed in such a way that it is used to achieve some favorable outcomes to motivate the consumer to buy, buy, buy, and buy.  From the past decades art remains the part of advertisement. Advertiser used artist’s art like their poetry, music, pictures, sculptures, bill boards etc for achieving advertising purposes. Advertising is art that doesn't attempt to carry much more meaning beyond. Art is itself simply a very advanced, abstract form of communication to varying psychological depth which deals with expressing the message emotionally with the help of lots of way, what make them tick, choosing stimuli which hopefully will connect with the target and illicit an emotional response. And its purpose is to hit the people directly or indirectly. E.g., David's paintings of Napoleon (Napoleon Crossing The Alps and Consecration) were painted and advertised purely to make people accept Napoleon's power. Any religious art is designed and advertised to make you realize the glory and might of God. Advertising uses art to illicit a response, ultimately with a purpose for the target toact in some way in response to the emotion. Art is merely making you feel something. Advertising can obviously rely heavily on art.  In short advertising as a whole itself is an art The purpose of all advertising is to sell something. The technique used to sell is to create desire in the intended audience. In order to create desire, a low form of art, either skillfully or poorly rendered, is used.  But in an advertising context, the viewer cannot be estimated the image as an artwork instead, it is evaluated as an advertisement by the viewer. All advertising is art; as advertising uses the same forms as visual art does.
Here the art merged in advertising elements of art is used in the advertising. In advertisement function of art is to present the product and the firm that manufacture it with the help of an image. An image is a set of emotional associations the consumer, is meant to have with respect to the product. The artistic methods of advertising revolve around the creation of such an image.
Lines:Lines are used in the advertising. Lines are used to symbolize the speed, strength and purposefulness. LINE is usually used to characterize a shape by being used in the edge of an area or surface, color, tone or pattern. it can becomes an outline or contour. Line is used to show movement. Line can suggest rhythm. Line is used to create textural results. Line is also used to indicate emotional effects.
Lines are the basic building blocks of all art because they are the visual basics of all reality. There are hidden meanings in horizontal and vertical lines. In general terms, horizontal lines propose passivity, while vertical lines suggest power and activity. LINE is straight or curved, heavy or light, soft or hard or a mixture of them all.  Shapes:
 Shape is used to suggest anything. Curves are used to propose feminine voluptuousness, while angles suggest masculine practicality. Depending on the nature of the product, the dominant shapes in the ad can give the movement to build images and relations based on these basic ideas. Shape can be surrounded by line, often defined by color, texture and Tone.   It is used to propose movement and emotions in advertising. Circle like shape is used to imply infinity and virtue, while a line, like a road leading to a horizon, suggests freedom. Triangles, squares and parallel lines all are used to propose different concepts and emotions. Triangles focus the mind upward, while squares often recommend practicality and usefulness. Shape can be sharp clear or hazy according to the nature of advertising product. Shape in 3D is also called Forms.
Forms:
Forms are more complex than shapes. Shape in 3D is also known as FORMS. Forms are the outward expression of inward content. A form is the synthesis of line and shape, and it creates the groundwork for all the other elements.
Texture:
Texture is the exterior qualities of an object that can be felt or seen. Sometimes it has to be concerned with touch. Texture can be smooth, it is used to signifying refined or rough tastes or it can be suggested by the way the surface is treated. It can be spiky, soft, velvety, regular or irregular in its nature depending upon the product. Sometimes it is used to propose toughness. This might be the distinction, for example, the surface features between an ad for Lexus and one for Chevy trucks suggest the different associations attached to these different vehicles.
Color:
Color is an element of design with endless variety. Colors are powerful image builders. With the help of color one can bring life in the dull and boring image.   It is almost always used to portray youthfulness, power and action. Blue is often the foremost color used in furniture or sleep-aid ads because Blue is often propose relaxation. Green color almost always advocates growth, hope and the organic. Yellow and red collectively suggest speed and power in a single object so they often used in automobile ads. Different types of colors:
Intensity of color is its power and purity
Color is a combination of 3 primary colors, red, yellow and blue.
Secondary colors are a blend of 2 primary colors, orange, green and purple.
Tertiary colors are a combination of the 3 primary color, red, yellow and blue.  a lot of different colors can be made by changing the amount of primary colors used. 
Color usually has temperature – reds and oranges give a feeling of warm like the sun or desert.  Cooler colors like blues and greens go more with water and ice, provides relaxation to the eyes.  HUE is the feature that split one color from another.
Tone value is the quantity of lightness or darkness of a color, as tone of yellow is light and blue is dark. 
Tints are made by adding white to a color while Shades are made by adding black to a color.
Analogous colors are hues lying near each other on the color wheel, red-orange, red-purple.  Complimentary colors are hues opposite each other on the colour wheel, red and green, purple and yellow.Discord is where opposite colours are together and one is a tint, so that the original tone of the hue is different.
Value:
Values normally refer to colors. It refers to changes in the actual color in the "form" of an object, but also can change in its intensity. Intense colors suggest speed, youth and virility. These are common in sports car ads and certain types of clothing aimed at youth. More cerebral ads focus on muted values, while ads aimed at youth often use bright, overpowering values.
Space:
Space is mainly the most comprehensive of all artistic elements. It is the synthesis of all other elements in the campaign. It is the stage on which all other artistic elements designed for advertising come together. It is not empty space, but is rather a spatial distribution of objects in a defined environment. An automotive ad stressing speed and freedom might use few objects in an ad campaign, and stress the road and the horizon. A truck, more about strength and utility, might be in a cluttered space such as a construction zone.
3D street Art and advertisement:
In the history 3D street art was used by the creative artists for the entertainment purposes. These creative artists were famous for creating three dimensional chalk drawings which are also known as 3D Street painting, 3D pavement art, 3D chalk art, and 3D sidewalk art. All these are the forms of anamorphic art. This type of art mean anamorphic art is usually consider to deal with the optical illusion. 3D street art is painted or drawn for one perspective and then when it is looked by the person through the lens of the camera then at that time at the same perspective and position the art give 3D look and creates the illusion of depth or height. Since then 3D Street Art has been used in the last ten years not only to entertain and beguile but has also become popular with brands to advertise their products. Now a day this type of street art is used for achieving the advertising purposes. This is mostly used in outdoor advertising. It increases the value of advertising.
Lego Art advertising:
Lego art advertising is used to communicate something special from the brand organization. It is mostly used to cover the outdoor advertisement campaign. Mostly used in the live event for advertisement. If you want to make something master piece for your organization then you can take help from the Lego art for advertising purposes 
Graffiti Advertising:
Graffiti advertising is a great way of advertising by communicating your brand message to the targeted audience in a more entertaining and engaging way then simply advertised through the broadcast media or through bill boards or other mean of advertising. 
All these types of art along with advertisement make the advertisement more affective and charming and also change the meaning of advertising.
Conclusion:
Advertising is essentially design to cleverly and cunningly catch the eye of the onlooker and is intended to communicate the message within very short duration of almost 30 second to maximum 1 minute depending upon the concept of advertisement. While Art is basically created to fulfill a natural aspiration that resonates within all of us and often is meant to be pondered upon. According to me art is the substance or stuff that artists make to express his feelings, artist is someone who analyses the world in which they live, and reveal their observations or incidents in their work and advertising is a service whose objective is to change minds and perception of the target audience. In short Advertising and art both belong to different field; the core of them distinguishes them. In spite of their different nature and conception there is much overlap between advertising and art. Each can obtain advantage of the other. As far back as late 19th century, art has been used to sell products.  People can make use of a piece of art for advertising purposes they utilize artwork to convey their message affectively as it happen in the past. With the advancement in the technology, the art director and artist became more important for the advertisers (Wells et al., 2000). With the help of them Different forms of art are introduced and now used in the advertising. Few of them are only used for outdoor advertising. Art and advertising alike are the business of transforming view of the world into the chosen art form, and this view could either be an extension of real life, or a view of what a perfect life could be.
Or it could be a fabrication of how we think life should be, an idealized description of life, upon which we can project our fantasies and imagination.